Police Brutality in Social Media

Following the police killing of an unarmed, black teen Mike Brown, public protests in Ferguson and a strong social media hashtag movement, connected to the Black Lives Matter Movement arose soon after, which addressed question that resonates among people in the black community: “If they gunned me down,” what picture would the media use to represent me?”. The #IfTheyGunnedMeDown hashtag went viral, and it was was a response to how Mike Brown was initially shown in the news and media. Rather than using photographs of the innocent teen in a school picture or in a sports team, many news outlets used the picture below, even though his friends described him as a “gentle giant”:

As a result, many people’s responded by calling Brown a “thug” who was flashing “gang signs”, along with many noting that similar images of Trayvon Martin were put in the media after he got shot, which caused a similar response after these images were used in the news. There has been an anti-victimization of Black people in the media when they are being killed for no reason, and it has to stop. 

According to Laura Stampler on Time.com, “in frustration at what they see as media reliance on menacing stereotypes, Twitter users have been posting contrasting images of themselves on social media, tagged with #IfTheyGunnedMeDown . So a photo of a minority male reading to children in army fatigues, for example, might be juxtaposed with that same man in a chain necklace mugging for the camera”. Below are some tweets from some of the popular tweeters of the #IfTheyGunnedMeDown hashtag that first kick started the movement in 2014: 

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For this post, I will create a basic archive of tweets based on the #IfTheyGunnedMeDown hashtag. I will then discuss what I have learned about my hashtag and the people tweeting it,  judging from the TAGS 6.1 archive I created and the tweets from a search from my hashtag on Twitter.  Below the TAGS archive search engine that was used in my research:

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According to the TAGS Explorer, the top tweeters currently are @mialee932 and @Gossippress. All of @mialee932’s tweets were quoted retweets with the #IfTheyGunnedMeDown hashtag, and these retweets mainly consisted of accounts asking which picture (a picture of them in a compromising position, or a picture putting them in a positive light) would the media use if they were gunned down by the police, as well as who this hashtag was for (black people), and who is was not for (people with privilege, mainly white people), and lastly the ongoing relevancy of this hashtag. Below is the visual that the TAGS Explorer gave me of the top tweeters:

Screen Shot 2018-04-24 at 4.22.31 PMLike said before, this hashtag is an extension of the #BlackLivesMatter movement.The TAGS Explorer pointed out that #BlackLivesMatter, #BLM, #celebrity, and #viral  Other related hashtags, just from my own social media experiences include #Justice4All#WorldIsWatching, #ICantBreathe#BlackoutBlackFriday#StolenLives, #CrimingWhileWhite#AliveWhileBlack, and #ThisEndsToday. Below is the visual that the TAGS Explorer gave me on the most common hashtags that the bubble of tweeters used: 

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Rather than just conversing, most people using the hashtag are just putting up two pictures and asking which one the news will use if they were slain. The main question asked in the majority tweets, (for example, #IfTheyGunnedMeDown which picture are they gonna use?) is rhetorical, so most people don’t actually answer the original tweets themselves. From there, there are a lot of quoted retweets of the these picture comparisons and the opinions surrounding this hashtag, and these retweets and quoted tweets are what is generating the majority lot of traffic. Links are not tweeted very often, unless it is a link to a picture. Below is a screenshot of the TAGS Searchable Twitter Archive, which shows some of the top tweeters from 2018 using the hashtag. As one can see, the majority of tweets are quoted retweets, and that rings true for the rest of the tweets on the page when I scrolled. 

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All in all, I have learned that people are still passionate about this issue, as the hashtag is still being used four years later. This issue is not as viral as it was when Mike Brown was killed, but this issue is still super relevant and needs to be addressed today. The anti-victimization of black victims needs to stop, and social media movements like this one help make the difference. Since 2014, i have noticed an improvement of portrayal of black victims in the media, but there are still considerable ways to go. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Police Brutality in Pop Culture

Police brutality has not necessarily gotten better or worse throughout the years, rather it is just getting recorded and presently differently in the media. In the following, it will be elaborated upon how police brutality has been represented in popular culture (like television, movies, video games, music, newspapers, etc.) since the 1970s.

To begin, in the 1970s, anti-police brutality was shown through mainly through pictures (which end up in newspapers), and posters, and sometimes through radio and television. With pictures, they were usually captured by newspaper photographers trying to get a good story. The picture below was featured in a newspaper, which showed one of the many instances of unfair policing at the time:

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Picture is derived from Blogs.OregonState.edu

With posters, activists would put them up to start protests in their area, spread the poster around the country to other activists, as well as carry them during the protests themselves.  The poster shown below was actively used by  former Civil Rights Activist Samuel Egerton during many of his anti-police brutality protests.

Picture derived from Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, gift of Samuel Y. Egerton

According to Katie Nodjimbadem, in 2017, after Egerton donated the poster to the Smithsonian, he remarked that “the message after 50 years is still unresolved”. Egerton’s remark rings true. Police brutality was and still is a lingering problem for people of color. Almost fifty years later, this message is still extremely timely, and “were it not for the yellowed edges, the placard could almost be mistaken for a sign from any of the Black Lives Matter marches of the past three years”.

Through radio and television, instances of police brutality would be reported, but at times were downplayed in seriousness.

In the 1980s, police brutality resistance in pop culture was heavily shown through music and the rap culture. N.W.A. released “Fuck Tha Police” in 1988 after they were profiled by the cops as being gangbangers when taking a break from recording some music at their recording studio.

nwa

The police officers unjustly acted violently against N.W.A., even though they were innocent and pleaded that they were just rappers doing their job. As said by Chris Moore’s article on Mass Appeal, this song was so controversial, it caught the attention of the government, “as N.W.A. discovered when their label, Ruthless Records, received a letter from Assistant Director of the FBI Milt Ahlerich. “Advocating violence and assault is wrong, and we in the law enforcement community take exception to such action,” the letter read. “Recordings such as the one from N.W.A. are both discouraging and degrading to these brave, dedicated officers.”

In the 1990s, police brutality truly became popular culture, especially in 1991 after the beating of Rodney King: “Major media outlets could not stop playing the grizzly footage of drunken motorist Rodney King being manhandled by four members of the Los Angeles Police Department” […] “The video of King’s beating went viral. Endlessly replayed and rehashed,” it “gripped Los Angeles when the cops who perpetrated the King beating were acquitted in 1992,” revealed by Shaun Scott from the City Arts Magazine.

In the 2000s, News reports went crazy after the murder of 57 year old Alberta Spruill. Juzwiak and Chan explained that “Police knocked down Spruill’s door, apparently acting on bad information that there were drugs and guns inside her apartment. They threw a concussion grenade into her home. She died of a heart attack. Below is her niece’s response to the incident.

In 2010s, the decade closest to home for us, police brutality has been represented in pop culture through movies, music, and mainly, social media. A very popular example of a movie touching upon police brutality is Straight Outta Compton (2015), as the summary given on the movie website iMDB explains that the movie is about how he group NWA emerges from the mean streets of Compton in Los Angeles, California, in the mid-1980s and revolutionizes Hip Hop culture with their music and tales about life in the hood. A lot of their experiences in the movie involve police brutality against them over the years, and the positive and negative reception about their response to the brutality through their music.

Through Music, Kendrick Lamar’s “Alright” gave hope to people of color amidst the constant police shootings and people slain in the hands of law enforcement. His song was a response of faith throughout adversity, and when he first performed it at the 15th BET Awards in 2015, which featured Lamar standing on a graffiti-embossed police car flanked by a gigantic battered American flag.

According to Wikipedia, Geraldo Rivera of Fox News called the performance “disgusting”, and criticized Lamar, stating that “Hip Hop has done more damage to African Americans than racism in recent years”. Lamar, later, responded to the comments with a short video questioning Rivera’s claim, stating “How can you take a message of hope and turn it into hate?”

Lamar later used audio of Rivera’s comments in his song “DNA.”

 

In Social Media, the #BlackLivesMatter campaigns have taken online communities by storm, which was a movement against police brutality and speaking out against the unfair policing of people of color. Below is a screenshot of a tweet made in response to the mistreatment of Colin Kaepernick because of his anti-policebrutality activism in the NFL.

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Other popular hashtags associated with this movement are  #Justice4All, #WorldIsWatching, #IfTheyGunnedMeDown, #ICantBreathe, #BlackoutBlackFriday, #StolenLives, #CrimingWhileWhite, #AliveWhileBlack, #ThisEndsToday. Each hashtag has its own story about people of color being mistreated by law enforcement or criminalized in the media, even if they were innocent.

 

 

#BlackLivesMatter Findings on Tags 6.1

Social media sites, such as Twitter, have continued to become the preferred medium for people trying to voice their opinions. One of the main issues in our society today is racism against African Americans and other people of color. Recently, this has been shown in police brutality and the harsh treatment of African American citizens. The hashtag #BlackLivesMatter has served as a slogan for people fighting against this unfair treatment. This phrase has been tweeted by Presidents, athletes, musicians, actors and many other influential people. With the help of Tags 6.1 I was able to find an archive of tweets relating to this important trend.Screen Shot 2018-04-16 at 4.23.10 PM

The hashtag #BlackLivesMatter was started in response to police officers gunning down African American males for no reason. Since its creation in 2013, it has grown to encapsulate the African American struggle with unfair judgement in the eyes of law enforcement and society. When examining an archive of tweets taken from Tags 6.1, I was able to see how people were using this hashtag today. Most of the tweets that I found were in relation to the incident that has recently taken place in a Philadelphia Starbucks. Two African American men were waiting to meet a friend when they were wrongfully arrested because a barista felt the need to call the police. People from all over the United States are tweeting at Starbucks denouncing their patronage to the famous chain. People are tweeting links to coverage of the story as well as their opinions on the police and the restaurant. Many of these tweets include the #BlackLivesMatter hashtag that seems to now be applied to all instances of racism involving African Americans.

As one story leaked about this coffee chain, more and more started to come out through social media. Examples like this truly show the power of the internet as many people had stories of racial profiling at Starbucks. “Disheartening to hear what happened at the @Starbucks café location in Philadelphia. My family and I don’t plan on continuing our gold member status nor purchasing any #starbucks products! #StarbucksBoycott #StarbucksArrest #BlackLivesMatter”  This quote, coming from a Chicago native, is one of many examples that show the public’s distrust with the coffee franchise. The tweet is sharing a viral story of another racist incident taking place at a Starbucks.

The video shows a black man being denied entry to their bathroom, while a white man walks in scot free. This story has been retweeted over 17,000 times and has gotten over 28,000 likes. Most tweets surrounding this story and the story of the 2 men’s arrests include words of peaceful protest. When reading through the many results, I found that the language was more displeased then hateful.

Starbucks is not the only organization taking the blame for recent issues. People are also angry with police officers for arresting the men for no reason. Problems like this have become the reason why people have started to lose faith in the law enforcement community. The job of a police officer is an extremely tough and rigorous profession but due to problems caused by a handful of bad officers, the whole job now has a negative connotation in society. I searched “police brutality” into Tags 6.1 to see what kind of thoughts people had on police in this country. Most of the tweets also included the #BlackLivesMatter hashtag but the language was angrier than that of the Starbucks tweets. Issues between the police and African Americans goes back many years. There have been many instances in which these groups have clashed but recently, the problems have stemmed from the unarmed murders of African Americans. Seeing the amount of tweets regarding racism and police brutality shows the importance of this problem is in the public eye.

After going through more tweets including the #BlackLivesMatter hashtag, I found that there are many situations in which the phrase can be used. It was involved when discussing the NFL National Anthem protests, Donald Trump and his presidency, and different racist situations that occur to random citizens. The Tags 6.1 system was interesting and it made it extremely easy to find more information on my subject.Screen Shot 2018-04-16 at 6.49.50 PM A simple search of “#BlackLivesMatter” gave me access to just under 1000 tweets of people using this phrase. After reading through many of the tweets I found an appreciation for the movement and what it represents. There have been many problems and horrific acts that have taken place society but this movmenet remains to stand strong regardless of the backlash it has faced.

Environmental Racism in Social Media

Environmental Racism is an extremely important issue facing the world today but many people have not heard about it. So then what is the best way to get more people informed on this topic? In order to get more people to know and understand what it is; there needs to be a way to inform the public on a world wide scale. That is where social media comes in. The use of social media is a great way to draw attention to the issue and allows for a multitude of different medium types to help people learn about the issue. Social media allows for both traditional writing and the use of video and audio aids to give a full look into the problems caused by environmental racism. In order to get this issue trending, a hashtag must be created for more people to be able to interact and understand the issue. Fortunately, there are hashtags that have been created that focus upon environmental racism. The particular hashtag that this article will draw its data from is called #environmentaljustice. The hashtag is rather popular and it is interesting to see the data associated with it.

First I want to discuss the top tweeters in relation to this hashtag and what they are tweeting about. The first tweeter to be discussed goes by the username @EJinAction and he has the most tweets in relation to this hashtag. His real name is Mustafa Santiago Ali and he is the vice president of an environmental rights organization called the Hip Hop Caucus. His tweets primarily are centered on links concerning environmental racism and calling attention to current issues facing minority communities. Here is a great example from his twitter feed.

EJinAction Example

Another great example comes from the profile by the username @DrBobBullard. This is the account of Dr. Robert D. Bollard. He is currently a professor at Texas Christian University is often described as the father of environmental justice. If you want to learn more about him he has a website here that explains more about his background. He tweets in a similar way to the @EJinAction does and can be seen from the tweet below.

Robert Bullard Example

These two accounts are one of the many twitter accounts that are tweeting about #environmentaljustice. They represent the vast majority of the accounts associated with this hashtag. The content is very similar as they often link videos and articles that talk about the issues caused by environmental racism. Now let’s look closer into the statistics associated with the hashtag.

The first statistics to discuss are the various other hashtags that are used in conjunction with #environmentaljustice. A list can found below and more information can be found by following this link.

Associiated Hashtags

 

Looking closely, it is interesting to see the variety of other hashtags associated #environmentaljustice. After #environmentaljustice the hashtags #climatechange, #mlk50, #epa, #bootpruitt, and #civilrights display how environmental racism is so ingrained within the environmental and racial justice communities. It shows how it affects all people and not one particular race in general. Though environmental racism is still a major problem for a vast number of communities of color. There are more in depth statistics that help display both the popularity of the hashtag as well as how much engagement there is with it. Take a look at the chart below.

Hashtag statistics

There is a caveat that these numbers were obtained at 5:21 P.M. on April 6, 2018 so the numbers will increase and change but that does not change the observations related to the numbers. It is interesting to see how a vast majority of the tweets are supplied with links to articles. It seems that a majority of the tweets use #environmentaljustice to try to spread information and awareness of the issue. Another interesting statistic is the amount of tweets per minute for the hashtag. It says that there is almost one tweet per minute. This is probably not as high as other hashtags, but for the more obscure topic of environmental racism it seems to be a success. Lastly it is also fascinating to see how this hashtag seems to have only started on March 27 of this year. It seemed a hashtag as simple as this one would be around for at least for a year but that is not the case.Now is a look over the volume of tweets on particular days with #environmentaljustice. The chart below takes data from a two month period, which is far larger than the inception of the hashtag.

Tweet Volume for Hashtag

From the chart above it is clear that there was steady amount of tweets using the hashtag but there was a massive spike April 4. The question is why is that. This is of course the anniversary of Martin Luther King Jr’s assignation; it was also the fiftieth anniversary. This significant event seems to be a driving force for the spreading information about environmental racism because of Dr. King’s message. He was one of the first men to take action against racial injustice in society and provides inspiration for those that wish to fight racism, particularly environmental racism, now. In the end, this hashtag has done an admirable job in promoting awareness toward the issue of environmental racism.

Racism in Pop Culture

In today’s world, entertainment is dominated by television, film, music, video games and other forms of media. People who control these mediums are able to warp the minds and opinions of the public through their works. For example, a musician can spread awareness of a problem through his or her songs while a filmmaker could subtly make a movie that preaches on social justice issues. In this post I will explore some of the ways racism has played a part in a few of these forms of entertainment.

In the film industry, equality among the races has been a problem that has been going since the early 1900s. The movie Birth of a Nation, which was released in 1915, supported the Ku Klux Klan’s agenda while also having white actors perform in black face. Movies have since become more appropriate with the ways they portray other races but there still seems to be some inequalities that have continued. Today, the problems are more focused around the presence of black actors in movies and the roles that they play. Since 1980, 85% of Oscar winning actors and 89% of Oscar winning actresses have been white. Oscar Wins by Race Chart #DatavizThis is due to the fact there are not many black actors or actresses that play major roles in film. Without taking paying attention to this fact, people usually do not notice the lack of color in film. In actuality though, most of the major movies that have come out in the last fifty years have been supported by mostly white casts. Recently though, people have challenged this problem by creating movies that celebrate African American heritage or criticize society for their stereotypes on blacks. Films like Get Out and 12 Years a Slave display the problems African Americans face every day and show how they can overcome racism and adversity. Most recently though, Black Panther has been released which has been extremely empowering to the African American community for their mostly black cast. The film has given African American children a hero to look up to while also showing that a mostly black cast can make a hit film.

“Colorism and racism don’t stop when you’re a musician or when you have wealth or when you’re in any given position,”. This is a quote from Chance the Rapper, who has become one of the more popular rap artists in today’s society. Music has been a key element of culture since the beginning of time. Image result for racism in musicThere has been a constant presence of racism in this industry though, as different races have been attributed to various styles. African Americans are supposed to be rappers and whites are supposed to be rock and country fans. When people try to cross over to different types of music there are always critics that say, “White people can’t rap” or, “Black guys can’t play the guitar.” Today though, people of all races are present in every type of music. There has been a shift in the stereotypes that surround music and different styles have become more diverse. Eminem took down barriers by becoming one of the most popular rappers ever and Darius Rucker silenced critics by becoming a successful country artist. Unlike the film industry, the work of black artists is rewarded adequately during award shows and presented frequently on the radio. Music has been a way for people to express their opinions about our world though. It is an extremely powerful way for people to spread their message to millions.

While music and film may be the two most dominant mediums in pop culture, there are many different categories of entertainment that are represented in the USA. Video games, for example, have become extremely popular around the globe due to the increase in the quality of these games. Surveys show though, that Hispanics are rarely shown in these games, biracial characters are nonexistent, and only 10% of video game protagonists are African American. Of that 10% though, most of the characters are either gangsters or athletes. These facts show the stereotypes that are present in society. Image result for gta san andreasAfrican Americans are always labeled as superior athletes so videogame developers mostly use them as the players in sports games. Without paying attention, one would never notice this fact. When playing a video game one might just be focused on winning the game instead of on the character’s race. The problem is though, that these games could give children a false perception of people of different races.

With so many different forms of media today it is almost impossible to censor all of the racist content that is being distributed. One can only hope that someday our entertainment with become an more open and free place for people of all backgrounds and colors.

 

 

Environmental Racism in Popular Culture

Environmental Racism is a topic that should be more widely known among the general population. It is an issue that has a wide reaching impact to hundreds of millions of people across the globe, but most people are completely ignorant about the subject. This ignorance has to end. The best way to increase awareness and knowledge of this issue is through the use of popular culture. There are many different mediums that can be used to help teach and bring knowledge of this subject to the masses. One great medium for introducing this topic is through video games. Video games have the luxury of having many of the aspects that other mediums have but, it is the only one that can claim to be highly interactive. This interactivity allows for a more immersive experience and allows the developer to craft a message that is engaging for the player. Many video games do a great job at either overtly or subtly taking jabs at racism within society. A great example that is very overt comes from the game Bioshock Infinite.

When it pertains to the specific topic of environmental racism however, there does not seem to be a lot of games which deal specifically with this issue. Video games seem to delve into broader topics than a specific issue. They will focus on an issue such as sexism and not focuses on sub-topics within sexism.  Other mediums in popular culture however do a much better job in approaching and discussing environmental racism. One of these other mediums is books.

Books give an in depth understanding on the topic of environmental racism and paint a great picture on what is happening in regards to environmental racism. The only issue with books is that it is not a visual medium. Other means of conveying popular culture do a much better job of giving a visual understanding on the hardships of the people dealing with environmental racism. There are two particular books that give great insight into this topic. The first book is called “Polluted Promise Environmental Racism and the Search for Justice in a Southern Town” by Melissa Checker.

 

Image result for polluted promisesThis book was published in 2005 and follows a very intriguing story. It looks over the twenty years prior of this book’s publication and discusses how environmental racism has become a rallying cry for many communities.  They are discovering how their communities are being contaminated with toxic chemicals and industrial waste. The book also delves into how the people of these communities deal with significant health problems and medical conditions, with the focus being on one area called Hyde Park in Augusta, Georgia. It then follows the lives of two hundred African American families as they struggle to get their message out and their community safe again. This first example is great but there are other books which also give great incite on this topic.

 

The next book which really illustrates the issue of environmental racism well is called “Where the Waters Divide: Neoliberalism, White Privilege, and Environmental Racism in Canada” by Michael Mascarenhas.

 

Image result for where the water divides book neoliberalismThis booked was published in 2012, and discusses the First Nations struggle in Ontario, Canada. The author argues that the water issues facing this community are an example of environmental racism. This is because of the historically unequal treatment of the First Nation’s funding, infrastructure, and management of its water and sanitation systems. The author also goes into how neoliberal ideals for the past twenty years are what allowed for this to occur. These two books are a great way for people to get to understand this topic and the stories of the people affected by it.

 

Then lastly there are the films that help explain environmental racism. This is probably the best way to teach and display this topic. There are two great films that do an admirable job in displaying the plight of people facing environmental racism.  The first film was co-directed by R. Bahar and G. McCollough and is called “Laid to Waste.” This film was released in 1996 and discusses the horrific conditions that the citizens of Chester, Pennsylvania. Chester is a city in Chester County, Pennsylvania and is relatively close to Philadelphia. This documentary does a great job of displaying the plight of the predominantly African American population in the city.

The second documentary is called “RISE”. It is a two part documentary produced by Vice, concerning the issue of Native Americans being disrespected by corporate and government bodies across the United States. The most well-known examples from this film include the resistance at Standing Rock and the Dakota Access Pipeline. These two films provide great look into the issue of environmental racism and why it poses such as threat to the United States and the rest of the world.

 

Through these various mediums racism and environmental racism is brilliantly shown and brought to life. People can now get an understanding of the seriousness of the issue and why it is such an enormous problem facing the world today.

 

 

Environmental Racism

Racism in the United States has been a problem for hundreds of years. With the advent of the industrial revolution and the beginning of the modern age, a new form of racism has emerged within our society. This new form of racism deeply affects not only the oppressed but the oppressor as well. This is called Environmental Racism and it heavily impacts all people.  Here is a quick look over Environmental racism in the United States. You can see its origins begin somewhat in 1971 after protests were made in Warren County, North Carolina, where the United Church of Christ commissioned a report exploring the concept. The 1980’s saw the African_Americans begin organizing environmental campaigns to avoid poisoning from pesticides from for farm workers and lead poisoning for inner city kids. The term environmental racism itself actually was brought up at a conference held at the University of Michigan’s School of Natural Resources in 1990. It was created to help describe the relationship between the environment and racism. So then what exactly is the correct definition of environmental racism. We know what it is but how is it best accurately defined? According to African American civil rights leader Benjamin Chavis he stated that environmental only exists when there is intent. Intent as in there is a clear motivation and intetion by people to segragate and racial discriminate those in accordance with environmental planning. Now lets begin by displaying three cases of environmental racism in the United States that have occured within the last fifty years.

The first example comes from a very recent crisis that began in April of 2014 and this is of course the Flint’ Michigan water crisis. Currently the issue has been largely resolved but it has taken an extremley long time for the U.S. central government ot act accordingly. This is why many people consider this an act of environmental racism because this was a largely African American community and if it was a white community there most likely would have been a faster response. Here is an image of where Flint, Michigan resides in the state.

Image result for flint michigan map

Another recent example comes from the devastation of Hurrican Katrina in 2005. After the storm hit and the city was completely underwater, it took the Bush Administrtion a long time to effectively enact a plan to help the city. Even with thje president’s rescue plan it did not consider the majority of the people in the city used public transportation instead of cars so it could not help. This is becuase most of the people in Louisana were African American and many did not owns cars and instead used public transportation. In the months following the disaster ,the many black organizations and leaders condemned the federal government’s repsponse to the disaster and stated that is was “slow and incomplete.”

Image result for chester pennsylvania on map

The last example  comes from a town in Pennsylvania named Chester and resides in Delaware County. It is located relatively close to the city of Philadelphia. In population of Chester is 65% African American. In Chester there are five large waste facilities and these various waste facilites polute the air and water around the area. The people in the area are 2.5 times more likely to develop cancer that anywhere else in Pennsylvania and the mortality rate is 40% higher than the rest of Delaware conuty as well as having the highest mortallity rate in the area. This is rather interesting as the rest of the county is 91% white, yet it is only affected the black minority. This is a very clear case of enviromental adn you can follow this link to get to know more about it.

It is clear that environmental racism is a problem that is facing American society and it is a problem that must be fixed. Hopefully over the coming years and decades it can finally be fully resolved and addressed.